Sustainable lifestyles and political economy of energy transitions

How do the three perspectives on energy transitions view the role of lifestyle changes? The techno-economic perspective points to the quantitative importance of lifestyle changes but is agnostic about their driving forces. The techno-social perspective identifies historic evidence for the key role of energy end-uses in transitions, but views the timing and direction of such changes as largely unpredictable. The political perspective highlights the importance of state intervention but is still under-theoritized with respect to modern energy challenges and technologies.

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Vested interests behind energy policies in Japan

Since the 1970s energy efficiency and solar energy have received much more support in Japan than wind energy. This is because these technologies were not only serving industrial policy and energy security imperatives, but were also more compatible with vested interests of Japanese industry and utilities. In addition, cheaper wind energy faced several geographic disadvantages.

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