Paris agreement urges developed countries to pay ... next to nothing for clean energy transitions

The recent Paris agreement urges developed countries to mobilize $100 bln/year for climate action in the developing world. But this is unlikely to have even a symbolic impact on clean energy transitions, because it could be achieved simply by re-labelling a large portion of the $135 billion of the already existing development assistance as "adaptation".

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Is Turkey a regional energy leader?

Turkey's regional energy leadership is over before it began writes Jörn Richert. In the last two decades the US (successfully) and the EU (less successfully) attempted to lead the Southern energy corridor. In the future Turkey might 'securitize' gas transits and thus become an 'energy power' rather than an energy leader or 'economise it' and thus become an 'energy hub'. The notion of 'energy leadership' elegantly explained in this brief can be used for analysing other important energy phenomena, for example German leadership in 'energy transitions' or Russian leadership in 'nuclear renaissance'. 

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